HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infectious (STIs)
Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis are 3 common Sexually Transmitted Infectious (to be called STIs in this page). STIs can increase the risk of HIV transmission. Being diagnosed with an STI is also a sign that your sexual behavior is at risk for HIV infection. According to experts, the prevalence of STIs among men who have sex with men and transgender people is high (> 30%). Therefore, let's learn about STIs carefully to prevent, treat and protect your health in a timely manner!
What is STIs?
Sexually transmitted diseases or sexually transmitted infection STIs are understood as one. These are infections spread through contact between the genitals, genital secretions of an infected person and mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth, anus) to damaged skin of healthy people through sexual activity.
STIs can cause serious effects to the body, and even death. With the exception of colds and flu, STIs are the most common (contagious) infectious disease.
STIs are caused by bacterial infections such as: Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, and viruses such as HIV, Genital warts (HPV), Genital herpes (Herpes), hepatitis B ... or parasites such as: Candida fungus, vaginal whip ...
Do STIs increase the risk of HIV transmission
Do STIs increase the risk of HIV transmission?.
Yes, STI can increase the risk of HIV transmission. Being diagnosed of STI is a marker of risky sexual behavior, increases your risk for HIV and requires PrEP.
STIs can increase the risk of HIV infection and transmission in men who have sex with men. People with gonorrhea or Chlamydia run the risk of HIV increases by 3 times (Kelley et al. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2015) and an increase of the risk of HIV 8 times if infecting to 2 infections in the past 2 years (Bernstein et al JAIDS 2010) . Among people with syphilis, there is a 2.6-fold increase in HIV risk (Solomon et al. CID 2014) and an increase of 4X HIV risk if syphilis is diagnosed in the past 2 years (Bernstein et al. JAIDS 2010)
What is chlamydia?
A bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia
NMany people with chlamydia do not have noticeable symptoms. When symptoms develop, they often include: : (1) Pain or discomfort during sex or urination. (2) Green or yellow discharge from the penis or vagina. (3) Lower abdominal pain. (4) Conjunctivitis, or pharyngeal infection.
If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to more severe symptoms and consequences: urethritis, prostate gland, epididymitis (male), or inflammation of the cervix (female), anusitis. colon, lymphogranuloma venereum disease (also known as genital lymphoma - lgv), reactive arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, difficulty conceiving. if a pregnant woman has been infected with chlamydia it can be passed to her baby during birth. children can have pneumonia, eye infections or blind.
Antibiotics are the most used treatment for chlamydia.
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is another common STIs caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus.
Many people with gonorrhea develop no symptoms. But when present, symptoms can include:• White, yellow, beige, or green discharge from the penis or vagina • Pain or discomfort during sex or urination • Urinating more often than usual • Itching around the genitals • Sore throat, conjunctivitis, diffuse infection.
If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to more severe symptoms and consequences such as: • Urethra infection • prostatitis or epididymitis (male), cervicitis (female) • Pelvic inflammatory disease, Bartholin gland infection • Perinitis • Difficulty conceiving. A mother can pass gonorrhea to her newborn baby during childbirth. When that happens, gonorrhea can cause serious health problems to the baby. That is why many doctors encourage pregnant women to have STD testing and treatment if they have one.
Gonorrhea can often be treated with antibiotics.
What is syphilis?
Syphilis is a STI caused by bacteria called Treponema pallidum.
The first symptom to appear is a small round sore, called a chancre. It can develop on the genitals, anus, or the mouth. It is painless but very contagious. Later symptoms may include: rash, fatigue, fever, headache, joint pain, weight loss, hair loss.
If left untreated, end-stage syphilis can lead to loss of vision, hearing loss, memory loss, mental illness, infection of the brain or spinal cord, heart disease, and even death.
o Syphilis treatment: Syphilis is a dangerous disease with a long incubation period. Therefore, if not detected and have a proper treatment regimen for syphilis, the syphilis bacteria will enter the internal organs, causing many dangerous complications for the patient. Treatment for syphilis in the early stage: Syphilis in the early stage is easy to cure. First, the doctor will treat the patient with the antibiotic Penicillin. This is a specific antibiotic that is widely used in the treatment of syphilis. If the patient is allergic to this antibiotic, the doctor will change to another antibiotic such as doxycycline, azithromycin or ceftriaxone. Treatment for syphilis in the later stage : In the later stage of syphilis, the symptom has grown more severe causing many complications of internal organs, nerves. The patient will be administered intravenous penicillin every day. During the treatment of syphilis, the patient should avoid having sex until the sores on the body are completely healed and approved by the doctor.
How are STIs examined and diagnosed?
STIs are diagnose mostly by urine or blood test.
At the same time, a test sample can be obtained by swiping a little cotton on the genitals. If there are ulcers, a test can be done at the ulcer site.
What should be considered in STIs treatment?
The recommended treatments for STDs vary, depending on the type of STI. It is important that you and your partner have successful STI treatment before continuing to be sexually active. Otherwise, the infection can be passed back and forth between the two.
For the treatment of bacterial STIs, antibiotics can often easily treat bacterial infections. It is important to take all of the prescribed antibiotics. Continue taking them even if you feel better before the end of your treatment. Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not go away or come back after taking all the prescribed medicines.
How to prevent STIs?
Using a condom during vaginal, anal, and oral sex is one way to prevent STIs. Mouth guards may also have a protective effect during oral sex.
PrEP only prevents HIV transmission but does not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis or hepatitis B, C ... and does not help prevent pregnancy.
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